Volunteer or victim
I teach at a low level high school, and although discipline is not too much of a problem here, motivation certainly is! I'd had enough of the BLANK faces, or the fact that every Japanese student will invariably turn round, discuss the concept of "question" with a mate, and then giggle a lot, whenever I aksed a question.
Nominating students to answer questions is not what any of us like to do, but this simple simple method will make it more fun more them. Every time you ask a question, shout "VOLUNTEER OR VICTIM!" The class decides whether one of them would like to volunteer the answer (much the simplest option for them if they are bored and want to move on).. or whether a victim will be selected. The idea of making a fellow student a "victim" appeals to them, particularly when I choose the one that shouted "victim" the loudest! Knowing that the class made the decision not me, the victim will then answer the question quickly and correctly to prove that he was really just too cool to be a volunteer! My classes have now even been known to ask for more questions, just so they can watch me select another one! This takes a while to sink in, but eventually they started to pay attention in anticipation that they would be my next "victim" (now the fun part!),a light shone upon my student's heads and all became clear, a question is there to be answered! And IT WILL be answered!
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