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Verb Forms and Verb Tenses (#3), by Dennis Oliver

 

Verb Forms and Verb Tenses (#3):

The - S Form

 

English verbs have five basic forms: the base form, the - S form,
the - ing form, the past form, and the past participle form.

The - S form is used in several verb tenses when the subject of
a verb is he, she, or it and the verb is not be. For most verbs,
the - S form adds -s or- es; for some verbs ending in - y, the y
changes to i before - es is added. The verbs be and have are
different. For
be, the - S form is is and for have, the - S form
is
has.

Here are some of the most common uses of the - S form:

1.  

Use the - S form in simple present tense sentences
when the verb is not be and when the subject of verb
is (or means) he, she, or it:

He comes from Mauritania.

She looks like her mother.

It seems cooler today.

That man needs some help.

Bob's mother has red hair.

My car needs gas.

     
2.  

Also use the - S form in simple present tense when
an auxiliary verb is needed for questions or negatives
and the subject is he, she, or it:

He doesn't come from Senegal.

She doesn't look like her father.

It doesn't seem very hot today.

That man doesn't need any help.

Bob doesn't have red hair.

My car doesn't need gas.

_______________________________

 

Does he come from Senegal or Mauritania?

Does she look like her father or her mother?

Does it seem cooler today?

Does that man need some help?

Does Bob have red hair?

Does your car need gas?

     
3.  

Use the S form in present perfect tense (affirmative
and negative statements and questions) when the subject
of the verb is (or means) he, she, or it:

Has he eaten?
Yes, he ha
s already eaten.
No, he ha
sn't eaten yet.

Has she lived here for a long time?
No, she ha
sn't lived here very long.
Yes, she'
s lived here for about 15 years.

Has the weather been nice lately?
No, it ha
sn't been very pleasant. It's been too hot.
Yes, it's been quite comfortable.

     
Important: Do not forget to add - S in the situations
described above! Native speakers
always notice when
an - s is missing!

__________________________________________

 

Special Notes:

1.  

Don't confuse verb + - S with is + verb. These are
completely different:

wrong:

right:

 

*That man is need some help.

That man needs some help.

     

wrong:

right:

 

*Bob's mother is have red hair.

Bob's mother has red hair.

     

wrong:

right:

 

*My car is need gas.

My car needs gas.

     
2.  

When the auxiliary does is used, the verb after it is the
base form,
not the - S form:

wrong:


right:

 

*Does that man needs some help?
*That man doesn't needs any help.

Does that man need some help?
That man doesn't need any help.

     

wrong:


right:

 

*Does Bob's mother has black hair?
*Bob's mother doesn't has black hair.

Does Bob's mother have black hair?
Bob's mother doesn't have black hair.

     

wrong:


right:

 

*Does your car needs gas?
*My car doesn't needs gas.

Does your car need gas?
My car doesn't need gas.

     
3.  

The contraction 's means both is and has. To know
which is intended, look at the words after 's:

He's here. ('s = is)
He's been here. ('s = has)

Se's sad. ('s = is)
She's feeling sad. ('s = is)
She's seemed sad today. ('s = has)

It's rainy. ('s = is)
It's been raining. ('s = has)
It's raining. ('s = is)
It's rained a lot this week. ('s = has)

________________________________________

 

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spelling - S

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