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The Present Perfect Tense (#1), by Dennis Oliver

The Present Perfect Tense #1

 

 

The present perfect tense is very common in English.
Its form is easy to understand.


Present Perfect Tense: Form

 


The present perfect tense always has two parts: have or
has and the past participle ("third form") of the verb:

I   have    been / done / gone / seen, etc. 
you   have   been / done / gone / seen, etc. 
he, she, it   has   been / done / gone / seen, etc. 
we   have   been / done / gone / seen, etc.
they   have   been / done / gone / seen, etc. 


In speaking,
have and has are usually contracted:

I have   I've
you have   you've
he / she / it has   he's / she's / it's
we have   we've
they have   they've


The negative forms have not and has not are often
contracted, also: have not = haven't and has not =
hasn't. However, the contraction can also be with
have instead of with not:

I have not   I've not / I haven't
you have not   you've not / you haven't
he has not   he's not / he hasn't
she has not   she's not / she hasn't
it has not   it's not / it hasn't
we have   we've not / we haven't
they have   they've not / they haven't

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Special Notes:

 1.

 

Note that the contracted forms he's / she's / it's
have two "translations":

he's

 =
he has or he is
she's

=
she has or she is
it's

=
it has or it is

In American English, the 's generally means has
if a past participle follows, but the 's means is if
a noun phrase, prepositional phrase, adjective, or
an -ing verb follows:

She's a lawyer. ( = is )
She's studied law. ( = has )
He's from Cyprus. ( = is )
He's immigrated from Cyprus. ( = has )
That's strange. ( = is )
That's happened many times. ( = has )
It's raining. ( = is )
It's been raining. ( = has )
He's sleeping. ( = is )
He's slept for several hours. ( = has )

     

2.

 

If a participial adjective comes after 's, 's may
seem to mean has, but it actually means is:

It's broken. ( = is )
She's frustrated. ( = is )
He's bored. ( = is )
That seat's reserved. ( = is )
That seat's taken.. ( = is )


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Next: uses of the present perfect tense (#1)
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