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The Past Perfect (#1), by Dennis Oliver


The Past Perfect Tense #1:


The form of the past perfect tense is easy to understand:
it always has two parts: had and the past participle
("third form") of the verb:

had asked   had arisen
had begged   had been
had checked   had cost
had dropped   had driven
had expected   had eaten
had fixed   had frozen
had guessed   had gone
had hoped   had had*
had implied   had hurt
had jumped   had known
had kissed   had lent
had liked   had meant
had missed   had put
had needed   had quit
had opened   had run
had passed   had seen
had questioned   had taken
had risked   had understood
had stopped   had won
had uncovered    
had viewed  
had watched    
had x-rayed    
had yelled    
had zoomed    

* Notice that had can be both an auxiliary verb
and a main verb.



In the past perfect, the auxiliary had is often contracted to 'd:

I had ---> I'd   we had --->we'd
you had ---> you'd   you had ---> you'd
he / she / it had --->
'd / she'd / it'd
  they had --->they'd



The past perfect is made negative by adding not after had,
but had not is often contracted to
hadn't. In addition,
contractions are common with subject pronouns:

I had not ---> I'd not   we had not --->we'd not
you had not ---> you'd not   you had not ---> you'd not
he / she / it had not --->
'd not / she'd not / it'd not
  they had not --->they'd not


Next: uses of the past perfect tense

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